There again, the girl is silent, unable to explain the significance of the amulet or the words inscribed in it. Belghoul, thus, suggests that certain 4. Again, retaining its oral the dichotomy between orality and textuality has often been the way of quality, it positions the marginal female dealing with the tyranny of the written word. Women writers, such as voice within, but also Virginia Woolf, have often resorted to oral means of expression to suggest the outside and against, invisible and oral presence of the female voice undermines the foundation of the canon.
For example, in A Room of 5. The historical tensions engendered by colonial powers have often found expres- sion through the dichotomy between text and voice in postcolonial litera- tures. The novels by the Algerian writer Assia Djebar, for instance, often contrast the silenced and muted presence of the colonized female with the configuration of the written text historically dominated by white male explorers, historians or travel writers.
Orality has often been held as the root of African-American art forms. Equatoria , Paris, Le Seuil, It escapes from us just as we try to grasp it; it is mutable, elusive, and fundamentally ephemeral; its dynamic nature puts our own intellectual mobility to the test in crucial ways. Nevertheless, most of us feel the need to come to terms with the present, with the new and the now , and we devise different strategies in order to do so. Writers are no exception. Like the rest of us, they too try to account for the present in various ways, and traces of that process can be observed in literature.
Histoire De La Litterature Francaise Contemporaine by Rene Lalou
The contemporary French writer Patrick Deville is a case in point. Right now , he is producing some of the most intriguing writing one might hope to find. His is an agile and ever-changing body of work that insistently asks the question of what the novel is in our embattled cultural present, and what it may become in a future we can only dimly descry. Based on that body of work, many critics described him surely and definitively as a minimalist, an impassive fictionalist, and a paragon of the Minuit School. Among those more recent works, I am most particularly interested in Pura Vida.
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Or perhaps, in another perspective, one might argue that the protagonist of these texts is the novel itself, because each of them—and whatever else may be at issue—puts forward a vision of the novel searching for a new shape, right now. That process is a compelling one, because it testifies to the way that culture itself shifts, right before our eyes.
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Yet there is very little fiction here—if indeed there is any at all. That trial provides the text with its principal narrative thread, around which Deville weaves an impressive variety of other stories. The regime that he presided was a short-lived one, lasting only three years, eight months, and twenty days, yet it left a very bloody legacy.
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That questioning is intended to restructure and reinvigorate our manners of writing and reading, to be sure; but what is also at stake, clearly, is the way we understand our world. But it is a special kind of history, one that is carefully honed and teleological. History always seems to point toward the present of course, or toward us , in other terms; and it seems inevitable, for we organize it in a narrative fashion, and narrative is necessarily teleological. Yet Deville provides another kind of logic to the particular chunk of history that interests him here.
As I mentioned, it begins with Henri Mouhot, the French naturalist and explorer. Mouhot is a conqueror , and Deville stages that notion very deliberately in his text, according it a place of privilege. History is mostly about wars and conquest and inhumanity, and it has a great deal of narrative punch when compared to any given human life. When we do so, however, we are likely to find that history belittles our story, and that a panoramic view tends to trivialize the details of which it is composed. Un ou deux millions de morts en quatre ans.
Six millions dans les camps nazis. Vingt au goulag. How can one attenuate that effect when putting history into play in a novel? Is a humanistic history possible? What went wrong, so quickly and so dramatically, allowing utopia to become dystopia? What is there about the revolutionary ideal that becomes perverted in the world?
Is there something about that ideal that breaks down in practice, or when it is called upon to assume human dimensions? Does the fault lie in political philosophy or in the very nature of people?
He wonders, for example, whether culture—and especially literary culture—can have any effect upon revolution, either for the better or for the worse. How can Duch, the former head of the Khmer Rouge internal security apparatus and commandant of the Tuol Sleng prison camp, a man accused of having tortured and murdered thousands upon thousands of people, how can Duch recite Vigny at his trial?
It is not the first time that the question of culture and terror has been asked, of course. There are many other instances where that question arises, most notably in examinations of the European Holocaust. If Deville focuses so closely upon literature, it is because, as a writer, he is quite naturally concerned about the uses and abuses of literature. Human greed, for instance, and the allure of new capitalism can account for some of those examples.
A trial is a forensic dynamic, first and foremost, one that is intended to discover the truth. Cette dilation du temps. Un ou deux millions de disparus au Cambodge en moins de quatre ans. In other words, the trial is lacking in narrative interest, and that is an important concern for Deville.
By the time Duch is convicted and sentenced, a year and a half after his trial began, Deville is thoroughly disillusioned. Like the revolution, the trial has gone badly awry. It has been put to uses for which it was never intended, and it tells a story that is very different from the one that a forensic fundamentalist might have anticipated.
Newspapers are yet another way of coming to terms with the world, but unlike history they focus upon the immediate, upon very recent and indeed ongoing events. In-8 raisin. Br, : 12 fr. Madame de Saint-Julien. Le Centenaire de Banville -i8gi. Essai de psychanalyse de l'art. La vie et l'homme. Le poete. Portrait et autographe. Thirty-five recommendations were selected, and concerned indications for fertility preservation, contraindications for ovarian stimulation in the context of fertility preservation or for infertility management , contraceptive options especially hormonal ones , and menopause hormone therapy for each tumor type.
Overall, prudence has been recommended in the case of potentially hormone-sensitive tumors such as sex cord tumors, serous and endometrioid low-grade adenocarcinomas, as well as for high-risk serous borderline ovarian tumors. In the context of a scarce literature, a formal consensus method allowed the elaboration of guidelines, which will help clinicians in the management of these patients. All rights reserved. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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